Classical and Item-Response Theories

Classical and Item-Response Theories

Comparing Classical and Item-Response Theories

Item analysis is one of the most important elements of test construction. Statistical techniques can be used to carefully examine how a test item functions. This analysis can reveal how easy or difficult an item is and how well the item discriminates between test-takers. Item analysis can also reveal whether an item functions similarly when administered to different populations or when it is translated into another language. Classical test theory (CTT) and item-response theory (IRT) are the two commonly used methods of assessing test item characteristics.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings.

Respond by Day 6 to at least two of your colleagues’ postings in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.

Classmate 1 (Samantha):

CTT and IRT are both widely used methods of item analysis in testing. CTT, or classical test theory, aims to develop the reliability of psychological tests through the performance of the test taker, as well as through the difficulty level of the test items (Pearson, 2015). This testing theory uses three scores to compile an overall result. These scores are the test score (observed score), true score, and error score. The test score, or observed score, is just that: the raw score the test-taker received by taking the assessment. The true score is the expected score the test-taker will achieve. Finally, the error score is the difference in the observed score and the true score. All three of these scores combine to give an overall view of the individual scoring on a testing instrument. CTT has been widely used across decades of research and is available to most testers (Hambleton & Jones, 1993).

CTT has three main disadvantages. Firstly, it is dependent on population samples for its scores. This means that reliability estimates and item difficulty are reliant on test scores from a sample population (Pearson, 2015). Another disadvantage is that the scores are difficult to compare across different test measures, because the scaling is not appropriate from one test to another (Kean & Reilly, 2014). The scale reliability, computed by Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, increases as more testing items are added (Kean & Reilly, 2014). This can lead to an unnecessarily long assessment.

IRT, or item response theory, differs from CTT by addressing each individual test item rather than the test as a whole. Just as its name suggests, IRT focuses on the relationship between the difficulty of the test and the test taker’s abilities. Latent traits are assumed to have influence on the answering of the test questions (Olufemi, 2013). A huge benefit of IRT is the ability to tailor the questions while still maintaining the ability to compare tests across individuals (Pearson, 2015).

Disadvantages of IRT is that is complex. It requires time and effort to examine each testing item, which can be challenging if a quick analysis is required. Another disadvantage is the large sample size needed for estimation, compared to the relatively small sample size utilized in CTT (Hambleton & Jones, 1993).

For my final project, I’m trying to discern whether honesty is an inherent trait or a learned behavior. IRT would allow me to tailor my questions to fit more populations. For instance, I could compare different cultures who may hold different values on honesty. I could also include “marker” questions, which would help to detect any false “good” answers on the test, thus decreasing erroneous or biased answers. The benefit of being able to tailor the test provides such a benefit when dealing with many different populations.

CTT is a quicker test to analyze and in the confines of this class, time is of the essence. CTT is simpler in its concept and I believe the test I’ve created aligns more appropriately with CTT. Utilizing a Likert scale, I have an ordinal measure; that is, the scores are able to be ranked (5 scores higher than 4, 4 scores higher than 3, etc.). That ordinal measure fits with the CTT model. With 50 questions on my test, it is quite lengthy. However, this increases the reliability of my test in CTT (Kean & Reilly, 2014).”

Classmate 2 (Amy):

“Classical Test Theory (CTT) is a psychometric test used to develop the reliability of psychological tests and assessments. CTT is measured through individual’s test taking ability and the difficulty level of the questions. Test reliability provides a more in depth score, which is essentially the main aim of the classical theory. An advantage of CTT is this type of testing provides organizations with more valuable ways of the group working together verses individuals. A disadvantage of CTT is mistakes occurring within the process of testing, such as too little candidates which does not fit well into the CTT assessments model. A second disadvantage is: Scoring in classical test theory does not take into account item difficulty. A third disadvantage is: adaptive testing: CTT does not support adaptive testing in most cases.

Item Response Theory, IRT, is different from CTT in it provides accurate test scoring and developing assessment and questionnaires in which it assesses the individual test items rather than the entire test (Anastasi, 1997). An advantage of IRT is it is more accurate than CRT and can improve individuals test scores as it is targeted on abilities, attitudes or other traits (Thissen, 1988). IRT is utilized in the school system and is most likely recognized in standardized testing and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A disadvantage of IRT is the complexity and excessive amount of research information (Clark, 2006).

My final project will be measuring the skills and talents verses the volunteer positions they volunteer in to find if they are in a position which utilizes their skills and talents. I have constructed a questionnaire which will be scored utilizing the Likert Scale. While IRT would provide a better assessment from the results received from the questionnaire, CTT would be the better model to utilize due time constraints and possibly less complex.”

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I had the same understanding of the IRT, as you indicated, particularly on the individualized testing of the responses. It becomes easier to identify the impact of each response, thereby determining its validity in a test (Suzuki et al. 345). However, as you put it, it is always significantly complex…

(326 Words)

Courts as Part of the Criminal Justice System

Courts as Part of the Criminal Justice System

The criminal justice system is composed of three branches: law enforcement, courts, and corrections. While the courts have their own unique function, they interact with the other two branches constantly. From law enforcement they receive information, parties to cases, victims, witnesses, and defendants. And they send convicted defendants into the corrections system.
In an initial discussion board post, consider one of the questions below. You must cite from this lesson’s reading material in your post.
1. How does the court system impact how law enforcement carries out its mission?
2. How does the court system impact how the corrections system carries out its mission?
3. Identify the most important things a court system can do to carry out the proper exercise of justice, and explain why.
4. Analyze how the court system reflects the norms and mores (values) of American society.
Respond to two classmates who chose to post about two different questions than you did. Do you agree with their point of view? Why or why not?

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Notably, the court’s system is responsible for interpreting and upholding the law. To fulfill their responsibility, the court’s system influence how the law enforcement carries out its mission. While the law enforcement is not responsible for distributing justice, they are required to maintain public…
(446 Words)

The purpose of this essay is to examine the bases of ideological perspectives

The purpose of this essay is to examine the bases of ideological perspectives

The purpose of this essay is to examine the bases of ideological perspectives. This assignment has three parts but the essence of the assignment is part 2*, this is where the bulk of the points will be scored.

  1. Your ideology
    1. Take the PEW typology quiz to an external site.)Links to an external site.
    2. How were you categorized?
    3. Are you at all surprised by your results?
  2. *Examine the bases of your ideological perspective in terms of:
    1. Chapter 6, “Public Opinion” of your Open to Debate e-text
    2. Jonathan Haidt and George Lakoff who look at differences in ideology as manifestations of deep-seated moral values. I will be expecting references to Haidt and Lakoff in your essay and you should find the following resources to be of help.
      1. Haidt, “What Makes People Vote Republican” Ch. 6 Reader
      2. Jonathan Haidt TED Talk: to an external site.)Links to an external site.
      3. Lakoff, “Don’t Underestimate Trump” Ch. 5 Reader
    3. Please relate your understanding of ideology, above, to a contemporary political topic or topics. If you are having difficulty coming up with a topic, consider some of the recent developments shaping public opinion such as: fake news, alternative facts, white lies, the polarization of cable news, the role of social media such as Facebook, etc.
Solution Preview
According to the ideology test analysis, I would qualify as an opportunity democrat. The classification primarily stems from my position as a Democratic Party voter, and position on the role of the government in addressing social issues in the society. Essentially, I believe that most people in the United States have an opportunity…
(881 Words)

Cleveland museum of art

Cleveland museum of art

veiw the portion at the Cleveland museum art that are relevant to our course humming in the world after 1300, and answer these questions in 2 double spaced pages.

* what pieces did you find most interesting?

* how do the art work relate to our studies?

*what did you like or dislike?

*what did you learn from your visit?


Attached is the power point where the two art pices that i found at the museum are mentioned for reference on the paper.

The two links are the two art work, that i want to talk about,



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Cleveland Museum of Art is situated in the Wade Park District. Its an art of museum in Cleveland. The museum incorporates collections of not less than 45000 art work from many parts of the world. However, apart from providing free admission to the general public, the museum is the fourth-wealthiest…

(580 Words)

Ethics Debate

Ethics Debate

  • Each chapter contains many “What Would You Do” situations.
  • Create  (Powerpoint ) presentation that includes;
    • Summary of the dilemma.
    • Details on how you would handle the dilemma.
    • Defend your position – make sure to cite resources.
    •  post a link to your presentation in the Ethics Debate Discussion Topic.

Ethics Debate Question below;

1. You are 30 minutes into a job interview for your dream job- one where your college education and experience could really be applied. So far everything is going well. Then, the interviewer asks you to write down your Facebook user name and password so she can do further research after the formal interview is over. What would you do?


Advanced information systems solutions

 Advanced information systems solutions

The main learning outcome for this unit addresses advanced information systems solutions. You need to be able to understand not only the concepts behind implementing an advanced solution like ERP, but also the management and technological factors involved in an implementation, the value added by implementing advanced systems, what prompts the need for an advanced system like an ERP system, and the potential benefits of implementing IS advanced systems such as ERP systems. This case gives them a successfully implemented case to analyze. Assignment Instructions: Review what you have learned about enterprise resource planning (ERP) from the textbook and from the unit’s study guide. Analyze the case study titled “Vodafone: A Giant Global ERP Implementation” attached below. For this assignment, you will need to: 1. analyze and discuss the central issue(s) faced by Vodafone, including the contributing management and technological factors; 2. explain why ERP was a necessary information system solution to address the organization’s issues; 3. evaluate the success of Vodafone’s implementation plan and provide one suggestion to improve the process; 4. discuss the value the new ERP system brought to Vodafone as a company; and 5. summarize your findings in a two to three page paper

Solution Preview
Vodafone faced significant issues in the management of various activities across the different establishments around the world. Although the company had so much influence on the technology market, it could not harness the influence to its advantage since its subsidiaries in different regions undertook…
(592 Words)

Personality Theory

personality Theory

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, read the required article by Appel and Kim-Appel (2010) and watch the Episode: 118 – Inside Out: An Introduction to Psychology – The Enduring Self video excerpt, which is accessible through the ProQuest database in the Ashford University Library. For this discussion, you will build on your experience in the “Personality Theory at Work in Popular Media” discussion from last week by re-examining the major theoretical approaches studied in the class (psychodynamic, behavioral, learning, trait and type, and humanistic) within the realm of social networks. In addition to these five domains, you will also consider the theoretical approaches related to complex models. Your initial post will be presented in a video format. Please see the instructions for this below.

To begin, choose a social networking site (this may be Facebook LinkedIn or Twitter ). Choose someone you know in your personal or professional life who has a profile on one of these three social networking services. It is important in your posts and responses not to disclose identifying information about your subject. You may choose a pseudonym by which to identify your selected subject in this discussion.

Choose one of the five domains (psychodynamic, behavioral, learning, trait and type, and humanistic) and create a personality profile based on your current knowledge of your chosen subject using the framework of your selected domain. Then, review the online profile or feed of your subject in your chosen social networking site and create a personality profile based on the information your subject has published on the site using the framework of your selected domain.

Compare and contrast the two different personality profiles. Provide an analysis of any differences between the two profiles. Select one of the models with the complex models domain. Explain the reasoning for the differences between the real world and online personality of your subject using your selected model within the complex models domains. Research a minimum of two articles on your chosen model and use these to support your statements. Evaluate and describe the usefulness of complex models as they pertain to this exercise in personality theory.

You may create your initial post as a screencast video presentation or a video blog using the software of your choice. Quick-Start Guides are available for PreziScreencast-O-Matic, and YouTube for your convenience. Be sure to include all the required material from the instructions above in your presentation or video blog. Once you have created your video, please include the link in your initial post. In your initial post, please include citations for your references and a brief reflection on the differences between creating a written post and having to present the material via screencast/video.


Article Review

Article Review

his assignment is based upon the article “Public Health’s Inconvenient Truth: The Need to Create Partnerships with the Business Sector,”. Read the article and respond to the questions. Each question!

Please respond to the following:

1.Summarize the article’s major points

2.Describe the three principle changes in the public health landscape driving public health’s need to partner with business.

3.What are the three trends underscoring public health’s need to partner with the business sector?

4.Give three examples of public health-business partnerships that have been established in the past 15 years and discuss their purpose.

The assignment is to be written as a paper. One source should be given to support your response in addition to citing the assigned article, which is already embedded in the course. You should use APA format, 12 font, double space, and write between 450–500 words maximum.

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The public healthcare sector has undergone significant changes, all of which have influenced the demand and supply of healthcare services in the country. Some of such changes include increased partnerships with business establishments, with a view to increasing the society’s access to healthcare services…

(543 Words)

Art and History

 Art and History

Let’s lighten your load a bit this week and only write two responses! Please choose any two of the following. Romanticism vs realism – define each and compare/contrast one example of each

  • Define Impressionism and describe two specific examples
  • Explain how the theme of war has influenced 20th century art – use two examples
  • Explain how the theme of psychology has influenced 20th century art – two examples
  • Choose one of the following artists and explain how they have contributed to art history with innovations: Picasso, Van Gogh, Dali (suggested 2-3 examples)
Solution Preview
Impressionism was an art movement of the nineteenth century that focused on the use of distinct color patterns to bring life to a particular work of art. Impressionist paintings had a significant relationship to reality since their images were often representations of things that one could easily identify in the real world…
(316 Words)

African American History

African American History

Assignment3 ..1

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African American Muslim who fought against injustice and oppression. During his lifetime, Malcom influenced the black political agendas which were one of the most critical aspects that facilitated the success of the civil rights movement. Besides, Malcom left a political legacy that not only emphasized…

(1094 Words)