# Epidemiology – Direct Standardization

## Epidemiology – Direct Standardization

Introduction: This assignment addresses competency 1: “Apply epidemiological methods to the breadth of settings and situations in public health practice”. It is one of several assignments that will be used to assess this competency (standardization, calculating measures, screening). You may submit the assignment as a .pdf, word document, or excel spreadsheet, or enter the answers in the textbook. Please make it legible, and easy to understand.

Assignment:

DIRECT STANDARDIZATION

Calculate and interpret crude and standardized mortality rates.

Table 1. Number of deaths of females and estimated mid-year population in Florida, 1997 by race

 non-White females White females (yrs) no. deaths est. mid-year pop. no. deaths est. mid-year pop. <1 249 23,325 356 69,690 1-4 55 87,643 83 280,109 5-14 56 215,670 98 704,636 15-24 143 187,774 297 671,365 25-34 360 176,134 590 771,978 35-44 603 189,223 1,312 925,864 45-54 701 138,545 2,362 825,970 55-64 1,041 82,760 4,365 667,617 65-74 1,471 56,052 11,388 730,052 75-84 1,687 31,601 20,739 563,050 85+ 1,495 11,405 24,543 189,213

(1) What is the crude death rate for non-white females and for whites females?

Crude death rate per 1,000 for non-white females: _______________

Crude death rate per 1,000 for white females: ________________

Table 2. Age-specific death rates per 1,000 population among females.

 non-White females White females age-specific death rate age-specific death rate Age group (yrs) per 1000 population per 1000 population <1 1-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75-84 85+

(2) What are the age-specific death rates per 1,000 population for each age group for non-white and white females?

Table 3. 1990 US Female Population by Age Group

 Age group (yrs) 1990 US population <1 1,928,000 1-4 7,231,000 5-14 17,124,000 15-24 18,098,000 25-34 21,596,000 35-44 18,925,000 45-54 12,824,000 55-64 11,158,000 65-74 10,139,000 75-84 6,267,000 85+ 2,180,000

(3) Using direct standardization, what is the age-adjusted rate per 1,000 among non-white and white females using the 1990 US female population as the standard?

Age-adjusted death rate per 1,000 for non-white females: _______________

Age-adjusted death rate per 1,000 for white females: ________________

(4) Compare and interpret the crude and adjusted rates. Which rates – crude or adjusted- should be used for comparison? Why? Write a statement of the findings for a lay audience.

I’ve included all the information that was provided in the description. Along with completing the charts (sorry they are hard to read due to spacing) there are 4 questions to be answered as well. Please let me know if you need anything along the way.

Solution Preview

Crude Death Rate for Non-White Females and for Whites Females per 1000

Crude Death Rate is calculated by dividing the total number of residential deaths by the total population over the mid-year and cross multiplying the answer by one hundred thousand.

Formulae

(Total Residential Deaths ÷ Total Area Population) × 100,000

However in our calculations, we shall cross multiply our answer by one thousand as per the request.

crude death rate for non-white females.

Total residential deaths = 7258

Total mid-year population = 1,200,132

7258 ÷ 1,200,132 = 0.00604766808

0.00604766808 × 1000 = 6.04766808

As calculated above, the crude death rate for non-=white females is 6.047%

(951 words)