What potential threats to internal validity do you see that your colleague has not identified?

Topic: PSY 635 Reply to Sharon Okeke Week 3 Post Problems in Designing and Experimental Research Study

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Details: PSY 635 Week 2 Discussion

After reading your colleague’s null and research hypotheses, do you feel that these accurately respond to the scenario? Please provide a rationale for your agreement or disagreement. Evaluate your colleague’s proposed research design and explain whether or not you agree with the research design chosen providing a brief rationale for your opinion citing the resources as necessary. What potential threats to internal validity do you see that your colleague has not identified? Consider the ethical implications your colleague has described and identify any other potential threats to external validity your colleague has not mentioned. Recommend potential solutions to the areas of both internal and external validity in the research design proposed by your colleague. (PLEASE SEE SHARON’S POST BELOW)
Sharon Okeke Post
Apply the scientific method to the information included within the scenario and develop a null and a research hypothesis based on it
Null Hypothesis – A default hypothesis that there is no difference between two measured phenomena or that two samples derive from the same general population.
Research Hypothesis – A certain clear and testable proposition or anticipating statement about the possible outcome of a scientific research study based on a certain property of a population that suppose to be different between groups on a certain variable or relationship between variables.
Using the hypotheses you have developed, compare the characteristics of the different experimental research designs discussed in the Skidmore (2008) article and choose the most appropriate one to adequately test your hypotheses.

According to Skidmore (2008), three experimental designs were conducted, and when these experimental designs are done correctly, they will be considered the gold standard research (Skidmore, 2008). These designs include:

1. Pretest Posttest Control Group Design – This experiment meets the quality of a true experiment because participants are randomly assigned (Skidmore, 2008).
2. Post-test only control Group Design – This design alters from the first test because controls for possible confounding effects of a pretest because it does not use a pre-intervention measurement (Skidmore, 2008).
3. The third and final design is the Solomon four-group design. This design is the strongest of the three. It connects the effects of a pretest and allows the results to an experimental control group that did receive a pretest (Skidmore, 2008).
Identify potential internal threats to validity and explain how you might mitigate these threats.
Threats to validity are important not only to research designer but also to consumers research because
Wants to rule out all competing hypotheses if the competition is ruled out. This firmly convinces the evidence to support claims (Skidmore. 2008).
One of the potential validity threats in this research is the number 2 selection bias and number 6 Experimental mortality. I chose these 2 because selection bias randomly selects participants, and if the number is too large numbers only if the law allows. And if the law does not allow this where the number comes in because of a differential loss of participants from the experimental or control group that may produce an effect that appears to be due to the intervention. Example: Lest say the group of participants the was randomly selected was too many, and intervention must be made if the law allows. Some of the participants have to leave the experiment because different types of participants from the experimental or control group may produce an effect that appears to be due to the intervention of controls member not dropping out. Then select bias will help (Skidmore, 2008).
To solve this issue would allow participants to volunteer or offer payment for their participation.
Apply ethical principles to the proposed research and describe the implications of this type of research in terms of the population(s) and cultural consideration(s) represented in the sample(s) within the scenario.
According to APA section 3.10, when conducting research or providing assessment or consulting services in person or via electronic transmission or other forms of communications, they must obtain the individual/individuals’ proper consent using language they will understand (APA 2017).


American Psychological Association. (, 2017). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (2002, amended effective June 1, 2010, and January 1, 2017). http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.html (Links to an external site.)
Skidmore, S. (2008). Experimental design and some threats to experimental validity: A primer (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.). Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, February 6, 2008). Retrieved from the ERIC database in the Ashford University Library.

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