What are the problems with taking an either/or approach to determinism?
About 100 words for one question, you can find answers in the book, or in the powerpoint.
1. Describe the distinction between technological determinism and social determinism and how each approach relates to ideas regarding what drives the history of media and globalization. What are the problems with taking an either/or approach to determinism? What is the “middle path” between technological determinism and social determinism, according to Lule?
2. In discussing the question of “When Did Globalization Begin?,” Lule describes Arjun Appadurai’s position along with two different approaches taken by other scholars. According to Lule, what is Appadurai’s position and evidence regarding when globalization began? What are the two different positions taken by other scholars?
3. The Report on Media and Communication (Chapter 13) features several case studies focused on how specific countries have different histories of media globalization. Referring to two of these cases—South Africa and Mexico—compare the media systems of these two countries, focusing on the following questions:
a. To what degree is each country’s media system concentrated and market-driven? b. What, if any, relationships are there between media corporations and powerful families and/or politicians/politics, and how have these relationships benefitted the economic and political elites of the country? c. To what degree has global investment from other countries influenced the country’s media system? d. In what ways have “political reforms” influenced the country’s media (whether corporate, public, or community media), and who has benefitted from these reforms?
4. According to the “Report on Media Communications,” why is it that media’s contribution to social progress cannot be understood without understanding both media distribution and the differentiation of media access? How does the emphasis on access as necessary to social progress differ from the modernization theory approach? What are the factors that effective media access and use depend upon?
5. What factors does the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences take into account in defining a foreign language film? How does the exclusion of the Nigerian (Hollywood) film Lionheart for consideration as Best Foreign Language Film for the 2020 Academy Awards (Oscars) illustrate problems in using this particular definition at a time when globalization is characterized by “Global English” in particular?
6. According to Lule, what are the essential ties between media and economic globalization?
7. Describe three of Lule’s (Globalization & Media) concerns about the implications of media oligopoly. What is his argument against the idea that the growth of media conglomerates is natural or the result of successful business decisions?
8. Describe the three main reasons for media corporations to pursue convergence, as noted by Jin. According to Jin, what is the major goal of de-convergence, which became a new business model competing with the ongoing process of media convergence throughout the past decade?
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