1. Exercise 58 … (For-Credit of 4 Points) (*)

(1) Symbolize the following argument,

(2) Establish its validity by a proof, and

(3) “Evaluate” the argument as well.

1. All the beings that have wings can fly.

2. All birds have wings.

C. Therefore, all birds can fly.

NB: Evaluating an argument often calls for subjecting a critical

premise to potential “counterexamples.”

2. Exercise 60 … (For-Credit of 4 Points) (*)

(1) Symbolize & (2) Prove the following argument:

1. All criminals are vicious.

2. Some humans are criminals.

C. Thus some humans are vicious.


3. on alternative symbols for quantifiers

As was in the Assignment [12], you may the following alternatives

for the two quantifiers.

1. Universal Quantifier

(x) … the same from the textbook

but also you could use this:

(Ax) .. for it as well to make it distinct from the other

2. Existential Quantifier


Solution Preview
Contradictory according to logistics, not all birds that have wings can fly. Penguins and ostriches tends to use their wings differently from ordinary birds. The ostriches usually runs in the wind using their wings. Whereas swimming deep down in the water is on way of how the penguins utilizes their wings…
(579 Words)
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