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Details: Please reply to these 2 discussion posts and provide 1 reference and in-text citation that is from 2016 or newer for each post.

Post 1 (Benedicta):
1. Choose one of the articles posted and read it thoroughly.

The Effect of Head Nurses’ Empowerment Educational Program on Staff Nurses’ Burnout

2. Identify the theoretical framework used in the article you chose.

The article is about research into how nurses’ burnout is due to the lack of empowerment of nurses in hospitals. According to Ali et al., (2018), there are two types of empowerment; structural empowerment, which comes from organizational/management theory, and psychological empowerment which comes from social psychological models. The theoretical framework used in the article is “Kanter’s theory of structural empowerment which focuses on the structures within the organization rather than the individual’s qualities” (Ali et al., 2018). Kanter stated that there are two systemic sources of power in organizations; formal and informal (as cited in Ali et al., 2018). Formal power according to Kanter’s theory is the power that accompanies high visibility jobs and requires a primary focus on independent decision-making, whiles informal power is derived from building relationships and alliances with peers and colleagues (as cited in Ali et al., 2018). Kanter believes that the power of a leader grows when it is shared through empowering others and as a result that leader will realize increased organizational performance.

According to Ali et al., (2018), Kanter also states that “the conditions required for empowerment to take place include the opportunity for advancement, access to information, access to support, Access to resources. By providing these conditions to employees, it has been found that there is increased job satisfaction, commitment, trust, and a marked decrease in job burnout (as cited in Ali et al., 2018). The study concluded that the empowerment program for head nurses was effective in eliminating staff nurses’ burnout. This indicates that the study proves Kanter’s theory of empowerment. Kanter’s theory was the right theoretical framework for this research because it helped provide answers to the aim of the study, which was to examine the effect of head nurses’ empowerment educational program on staff nurses’ burnout (Ali et al., 2018).

3. Go to the reference section of the article and Identify/select at least one primary source and one secondary source (articles) that also used the theoretical framework.

Primary Source:

Hassona, F. M. (2013). Relationship between structural empowerment, work engagement, and job satisfaction among nursing staff at Zagazig University Hospitals. Zagazig Nursing Journal. Vol.9, No.1. 15-30.

Secondary Sources

Kanter, R. M. (1993). Men and women of the corporation (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books.

4. Now, search the electronic database such as Gale-Info tract on LIRN, CINAHL, or ProQuest to identify the primary and secondary source articles you selected.

Abstract of the Primary Source

According to Hassona (2013), nurses play an essential role in organizational achievement therefore, it is important for nurse managers to recognize nurses’ work and provide them with opportunities to grow and to look after their comfort. The purpose of the study was to find out if there is a relationship between structural empowerment, work engagement, and job satisfaction among the nursing staff. The research was done at Zagazig University using the descriptive correlational and cross-sectional study methods and 100 nurses participated. The study concluded that there is a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and both structural empowerment and work engagement among the nurses working at Zagazig University Hospitals (Hassona, 2013).

Abstract of the Secondary Source

Kanter (1993), argued that “the job makes the person.” The author believed that individuals’ behavior is created by the possibilities offered to them by their companies. According to Kanter (1987), “productivity, motivation, and career services are determined largely by organizational structure and the nature of the social circumstances in which people find themselves.” Thus, any observed difference in the behavior and success of women and men has more to do with what their jobs offered them and not differences in their ability or their drive (Kanter, 1993).

References

Ali, A. Z. F., Nageeb, S. M., & Hassona, F. M. (2018). The effect of head nurses’

empowerment educational program on staff nurses’ burnout. American Journal of Nursing Research. Vol. 6, No. 6, 625-637. DOI:10.12691/ajnr-6-6-33

Hassona, F. M. (2013). Relationship between structural empowerment, work engagement, and job satisfaction among nursing staff at Zagazig University Hospitals. Zagazig Nursing Journal. Vol.9, No.1. 15-30.

Kanter, R. M. (1993). Men and women of the corporation (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books.

Post 2 (Bahja):

The article selected for this review is “The Sunrise Model: A Contribution to the Teaching of Nursing Consultation in Collective Health” by de Melo (2013). The theoretical framework used in this study is the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. The aim of this theory is to provide culturally responsive care to enhance health while preparing patients for disabilities or death (de Melo, 2013).

The articles selected from the study are Leininger (1997) “Overview of the Theory of Culture Care with the Ethnonursing Research Method” and the text “Culture Care Diversity and Universality: A Worldwide Nursing Theory” by Leininger and McFarland (2006). While looking at the abstract of Leininger (1997), the author defines his process of developing the theory through ethnographic methods. The methods are primary research since the author himself conducted field research to contextualize the theory. The abstract describes the means used to determine the theory through a review of the history of ethnonursing and the approach used to conclude on the theoretical approach to nursing. On the other hand, Leininger and McFarland (2006) is a text detailing the theory and all its tenets. The text details the process of developing the theory as well as the background of the theory and its applications. Therefore, compared to the primary source, it is more detailed and also presents the application of the theory.

This review presents the main difference between primary and secondary sources. Primary sources detail original research and outline the methods that the researcher used. On the other hand, secondary sources present a discussion of original research and a review of research outcomes. Therefore, as outlined in the review above, the researchers in secondary sources use original research articles as references. The two articles’ abstracts present a discussion of the theoretical framework using the different approaches of primary and secondary research.

References

de Melo, L. P. (2013). The sunrise model: A contribution to the teaching of nursing consultation in collective health. American Journal of Nursing Research, 1(1), 20-23. https://doi.org/10.12691/ajnr-1-1-3

Leininger, M. (1997). Overview of the theory of culture care with the ethnonursing research method. Journal of Transcultural nursing, 8(2), 32-52. https://doi.org/10.1177/104365969700800205

Leininger, M. M., & McFarland, M. R. (2006). Culture care diversity and universality: A worldwide nursing theory. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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