Public healthcare requires a population approach.

Public healthcare requires a population approach.

Please answer reply to each question in 150 min and one reference. The answer is a response to each question individually

1. Global health indicators are divided into direct and indirect measures of health phenomena. Indicators. Access to safe water and levels of education attained are indicators that could be used to categorize a country as low, medium, or high disease burden. Indicators are used for programming and evaluating the health status of a population. Health indicators were originally based on mortality rate, but with advancement, it was discovered that quality of care, access to care, and living conditions were essential indicators of holistic healthcare (Larson, 2004).

Following the low immunization rate globally, the WHO developed a global infant immunization program called the Expanded Program on Immunization. The program was established to ensure full immunization of infants across the world. All the recommended vaccines, which include polio, measles, influenza B. TB, DTB, hepatitis B, and others, are offered in the program. The WHO set vaccination of DTB as the health indicator for this program. DTB is the only vaccine offered in three doses, and the program’s success was set as the percentage of children who received its third and final dose. The WHO has set a global target of 90% coverage for the last DTB dose among children (“Health Indicators,” 2020). Although the rest of the coverage is reported, DTB is used as the indicator for the Expanded Program on Immunization. The DTB indicator is used as a proxy indicating that the child has received the entire vaccine dose and indicates the country has a good health system.

Several qualities should define a good healthcare indicator, Heath indicators should be specific and clearly stated, it should be attainable in terms of budget, time, and data collection, given the limitation of resources. Lastly, the indicator should be relevant and time-bound since the environment is constantly changing over time.


Health Indicators. (2020). Retrieved 11 September 2020, from, C. (2004). Global health indicators: an overview. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171(10), 1199-1200.

2. Public healthcare requires a population approach. The United States has made substantial health investments over the year. However, health status does not match the level of investments (Hahn & Truman, 2015). National globally needs to move beyond clinical interventions to improve population health. One such intervention is a focus on the education sector to improve public health.

Education in public health is examined under three principals, including health is a prerequisite of education in that bad health hinders learning, education about health where education is central to most health interventions, and physical education in schools, which illustrates the importance of physical activities. Basic education is integral to public health. Lack of basic knowledge about healthy living, emotional awareness, and reason results in an unhealthy population. One of the WHO concept of health states that a person who fails to achieve some social well-being level is unhealthy (Hahn & Truman, 2015). The concept of education is reflected in n several projects of health agencies in the United States. For instance, cognitive health is recognized in the CDC’s Healthy Aging Program.

There are several pieces of evidence supporting the association between education and public health. First, the achievement of higher grades among high schools is consistently linked to a lower rate of risk behavior. It means that risk behaviors, such as using drugs, interfere with academic achievements. Secondly, education achievements influence income and wages, primarily linked to healthcare, a safe environment, and healthy food. In the last 20 years, higher wages in the United States were associated continuously with high academic achievements (Hahn & Truman, 2015). Lastly, education is primarily associated with self-assessed health. A recent study indicated that Americans with less than a high school education were 2.4 times as high school graduates likely to associate themselves with poor health. Education attainment is positively associated with population health, and its effect has accumulated over time.


Hahn, R., & Truman, B. (2015). Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity. International Journal Of Health Services, 45(4), 657-678.



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Public healthcare requires a population approach.


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