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Formulate a research question related to that issue.
What types of physiological experiences do women older than 35 encounter while getting medical treatment for ovarian cancer?

Identify the independent and dependent variable, hypothesis, and type of hypothesis.
The Independent variable is the experiences of Hispanic women

The dependent variable is the treatment for ovarian cancer

Hypothesis

Adult women who experience loss of appetite and fatigue while undergoing cancer treatment are more likely to lose weight.

Type of hypothesis

(1) Associative versus causal: Associative occurs or exist together in the real world so that when one variable changes, the other variable changes. Causal is where the independent variable, is thought to cause or determine the presence of the other variable, the dependent variable (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p. 78).

(2) simple versus complex: Simple describes the relationship, associative or causal, between two variables. Complex predicts the relationships, either associative or causal, among three or more variables (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p. 79).

(3) nondirectional versus directional: Nondirectional is one that states that a relationship exists between two variables, but it does not predict the direction or nature of the relationship. Directional is the nature or direction of the relationship between two or more variables. Based on nursing theories, observed phenomena, clinical experience, and existing clinical and research literature (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p. 80).

(4) null versus research: Null there is no relationship between two variables, and statistical testing is used to either accept or reject this statement a relationship exists between two or more variables. The research hypothesis is a relationship that exists between two or more variables, it can be associative or causal, simple, or complex, non-directional, or directional (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p. 80).

What type of research study design would you use to address that issue?
Conducting qualitative, phenomenological research will address the issues. It is used to answer questions related to the how’s and whys of the patient experience. The emphasis is on words, understanding and giving meaning to the exploratory and inductive patient stories to deduct and hypothesis the collected data to get to a credible conclusion (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p. 22).

What type of sampling or sampling strategy would you use?
While performing qualitative phenomenological research, I will use the purposive sampling method to recruit participants who are key informants to the development and collection of the data research (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p.223).

Reference

Schmidt, N. A., & Brown, J. M. (2019). Evidence-Based Practice for Nurses (4thth ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

2. Consider a patient-centered issue you have observed recently. Formulate a research question related to that issue. Identify the independent and dependent variable, hypothesis and type of hypothesis. What type of research study design would you use to address that issue, what type of sampling or sampling strategy would you use? Defend your choices with support from your textbook or another peer-reviewed journal source.

A patient-centered issue that I observed most recently is the unavailability of preventive care accessible to low-income communities. In the last few months, I have observed in neighboring communities that service many people from low income, poverty, and homelessness. The majority of the patients in this area of my community have a preexisting diagnosis of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus. Both of these diseases are preventable and modifiable with proper patient education, screening, and lifestyles modifications, such as diet and exercise. This leads me to the following question.

Research Question: Why are people from low-income communities less likely to seek preventive health care?

Independent variable: The people from low-income communities

Dependent variable: Is preventive health care.

Hypothesis: People from low-income communities are less likely to seek preventive care due to a lack of education, screening, and proper lifestyle modifications.

This form of a hypothesis is a causal relationship hypothesis because one variable, the independent variable, is thought to cause a change in the dependent variable. So, in this case, it is implying a person’s socioeconomic level is going to cause a change in their access to preventive healthcare. I would choose to use a qualitative research design in this case. It would be done by using voluntary surveys of people from low-income communities that have Hypertension and/or diabetes. I would then use a structured questionnaire with multiple choice answers to determine some of the contributing factors that cause this demographic to not seek preventive health care (Fleary et al., 2013).

Fleary, S. A., Ettienne-Gittens, R., & Heffer, R. W. (2013, April 3). Perceptions of Preventive Health Care and Healthy Lifestyle Choices for Low-Income Families: A Qualitative Study. ISRN Preventive Medicine. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/189180/.

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