Raising of America

Answer the questions below. The paper should use evidence from at least 2 credible sources, and should follow APA guidelines for citations and formatting. The paper should be between 3-5 pages, double-spaced.

One of the programs for children established during the Johnson Administration was Head Start, a preschool program for children aged four and five. Although Head Start, which serves low-income families, has continued to receive funding, there have never been enough slots available to meet the needs of all eligible children.

In 2013, for example, less than 50% of eligible low-income preschoolers were enrolled in Head Start. Though not all of those children would attend even if a slot was available, many families who want services are being turned away.


  1. Why do you suppose that this is the case?
  2. If Head Start is effective enough to receive continued funding, why wouldn’t we choose to fund it at levels that would guarantee a space to every eligible child?

In the 1990s, Congress passed Healthy Start, a program offering prenatal care, childcare, home visiting, and other services to low-income families for children from birth to age three. But in 2013, its funding was so low it served less than 5% of eligible children.

  1. Why do you think Congress never followed up the authorization with the appropriation of sufficient funding?

There’s an argument about whether government subsidies for childcare should be needs-based (like Head Start) or universal (like Social Security).

  1. What do you think–should government subsidies for childcare be needs-based or universal? Why?
  2. Which is more likely to attract public support and why?
  3. The U.S. is the wealthiest, most powerful country in the world. So why has our child well-being fallen to 39th? An alarming number of American children are following low developmental trajectories from the start. They enter adulthood with learning challenges, behavioral issues, and even poor physical health.But population health is not all that’s at risk, researchers argue. By under-investing, in the vital years of early childhood, we are also under-developing America.The evidence confirms that providing all our children the opportunity for a strong start pays many dividends, not just for individuals but for the future prosperity, equity, and well-being of the nation. What infants and toddlers need for a strong start is no mystery. A nurturing environment—safe, stable, and responsive—builds sturdy brain architecture, the foundation for future success in school and in life. The Raising of America interweaves discoveries from neuroscience with the stories of families and communities struggling to provide the nurturing environment all babies and young children need.But too often parents find their efforts hindered by social and economic forces beyond their control: stagnant wages and job insecurity, lack of paid parental and family leave, childcare that is both poor quality and financially out of reach, racial stigma, and social exclusion.This growing squeeze for time, money, and resources has made American middle-class life increasingly precarious. And when parents are squeezed, their children pay the price. A 20-year Wisconsin study shows that stressors on parents when their children are infants and toddlers increase the risk of those children growing up with a hyper-reactive fight-or-flight stress response. The personal and social costs? More emotional, behavior, substance abuse, and learning problems later in life, even chronic disease.Those suffering the most risks, however, are the one in four children born into poverty. Their parents confess feeling fearful and guilty they won’t be able to provide what their children need in our fend-for-yourself society. Pediatrician Renée Boynton-Jarrett asks: Is this what we’ve decided as a society, that this degree of tension, these complex trade-offs are the norm, to be expected, just a part of raising a child?It doesn’t have to be this way. We all benefit when we as a society better assure the conditions all children need for a strong start and the opportunity to realize their potential. Pre-school teacher Aiyauna Terry, embracing her young students, puts the challenge this way: This is the future right here. Invest in them. Invest in their parents. If you want America to get back on top, invest in these children now. They’re not going to fail you, but we can’t fail them now. The fate of the nation may hang in the balance.
  4. Another reading https://egcc.instructure.com/courses/25903/files/6428132/download?verifier=eSVahGRGZLMliduFhcHXBBPgE7uLd9DfSNzhUSZr&wrap=1
    another reading
  5. https://raisingofamerica.org/once-upon-time
  6. https://vimeo.com/145324336

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