How is Alzheimer’s disease diagnosed?

Case study Neuro and Musculoskeletal function

Case Study Neuro and Musculoskeletal Function: Submit a response to the following questions in the Module dropbox.

1- Bill, age 70 years, is accompanied by his wife to a routine physical examination. Bill is tall, cheerful, greets the nurse warmly, and then starts walking around the room until he realizes he is supposed to sit down.

As the nurse asks Bill questions about his health and medical history, he answers some and smiles at all. Bill’s wife, Cecilia, fills in the answers Bill is not sure of or does not answer. Both Bill and Cecilia seem comfortable with her supporting role in helping Bill remember things.

Bill retired as an accountant two years earlier, and in the period since retirement, Bill has reached the point where he cannot balance the checkbook. Gradually, Cecilia handled the task, as well as handling money and change while shopping. This change in Bill’s use of numbers has been sudden, and Cecilia wonders if something can be done to help Bill.

Bill smiles at both Cecilia and the nurse shrugs his shoulders, and does not exhibit concern or distress.

· How is Alzheimer’s disease diagnosed?

· What help can the nurse offer? Mention at least three options

· Describe what happens when the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous systems are activated.

2- Kate, who is 48 years old, has a sedentary job sitting at a computer all day, but her weight is normal and her health is good, which the nurse concludes by reviewing Kate’s history of previous visits.

Kate said she does some cross-country skiing in the winter, and in warmer weather likes to hike with friends. Kate believes people always have some aches and pains after age 40, but the frequency of pains and tightness in the upper and lower back, neck, and shoulders has been increasing and is of concern to her. The last time she went hiking, someone else had to carry her backpack. Kate asks the nurse if something can be responsible for her increased achiness besides just getting a few years older.

· Is osteoarthritis inflammatory in origin? Explain your answer

· Is the description Kate gives of the onset of clinical manifestations typical of osteoarthritis? Explain your answer

· Name three possible treatments for osteoarthritis.

Additional Resources:

· Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

· CEMM Virtual Library:

· National Institute on Aging:

· National Multiple Sclerosis Society:

· Neuroanatomy Tutorial:

· Shepherd Center: Understanding Spinal Cord Injury:

The Internet Stroke Center:

· American Academy of Family Physicians:

· MedlinePlus: Medical Encyclopedia:

· National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases:

· National Osteoporosis Foundation:

· National Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center:

· Stanford Medicine: Gait Abnormalities:

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How is Alzheimer’s disease diagnosed


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