Intelligence and academic achievement are two distinct concepts that, while related, are not synonymous. Intelligence refers to an individual’s overall cognitive ability, encompassing various mental processes such as reasoning, problem-solving, memory, and learning capacity. Virtually all intelligence tests provide an overall score (IQ) which represents general intelligence, or reasoning ability, along with an array of separate scores measuring specific mental abilities (Berk, 2023). It represents an individual’s potential for intellectual functioning and is considered a more stable trait that remains relatively consistent throughout a person’s life. Because IQ predicts school performance and educational attainment, it often enters into educational decisions (Berk, 2023). Academic achievement refers to the specific outcomes and accomplishments attained within an educational context. It is typically measured by grades, test scores, and other academic indicators, reflecting a person’s performance in academic settings such as schools or universities. Academic achievement is influenced by various factors, including intelligence, but is not solely determined by it.
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