Apply the scientific method to propose a hypothesis and set up an experiment including positive
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1. Apply the scientific method to propose a hypothesis and set up an experiment including positive and negative controls and appropriate units of measurement.
2. Predict the numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons given the atomic symbol or limited information for a specific isotope of an element and relate them to atomic mass and charge.
3. Determine chemical names and/or chemical formulas for diatomic or simple polyatomic compounds and draw a Lewis structure, construct a molecular geometry and determine the polarity for a covalent compound.
4. Balance chemical equations, calculate the molar mass of all compounds in the reaction, and demonstrate how mole ratios play a role in stoichiometry.
5. Predict how a change in one or more of the parameters of a gas alters dependent gas parameters such as pressure, volume or temperature.
6. Calculate the concentration and volume of a solution given solute and solvent parameters.
7. Predict the properties of and identify reduction and oxidation agents as well as acids and bases by analysis of chemical formulas, chemical reactions, and solution pH values.
8. Differentiate the common classes of organic functional groups and identify the appropriate common or IUPAC names, applications, and chemical structures for simple organic compounds,
9. Differentiate between the types of radioactive decay at the subatomic level and provide real-world applications, sources, and risks.
10. Contrast the synthesis, composition, structure and functions of major biological macromolecules and Illustrate the process of flow of genetic information.
USEFUL ANSWERS. MAKE SURE YOU PARAPHRASE.
1. Scientists (and other people) test hypotheses by conducting experiments. The purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations of the real world agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis. If they agree, confidence in the hypothesis increases; otherwise, it decreases
2. The atomic number of the element equals the number of protons. Calculating the number of neutrons then becomes the atomic mass of the isotope minus the atomic number of the element equals the number of neutrons. For uranium-235, atomic number 92, the number of neutrons is 235-92=143, or 143 neutrons.
4.A chemical equation is like a recipe for a reaction so it displays all the .The following equation demonstrates the typical format of a chemical equation. Molar mass is a useful chemical ratio between mass and moles. For compounds or molecules, you have to take the sum of the atomic mass times the .
5.A. Boyle’s Law
Boyle’s Law states: If the temperature of a gas sample is kept constant, the volume of the sample will vary inversely as the pressure varies. This statement means that, if the pressure increases, the volume will decrease. If the pressure decreases, the volume will increase. This law can be expressed as an equation that relates the initial volume (V1) and the initial pressure (P1) to the final volume (V2) and the final pressure (P2). At constant temperature
B. Charles’ Law
Charles’ Law states: If the pressure of a gas sample is kept constant, the volume of the sample will vary directly with the temperature in Kelvin (Figure 9.9). As the temperature increases, so will the volume; if the temperature decreases, the volume will decrease. This relationship can be expressed by an equation relating the initial volume (V1) and initial temperature (T1 measured in K) to the final volume (V2) and final temperature (T2 measured in K). At constant pressure,
C. The Combined Gas Law
Frequently, a gas sample is subjected to changes in both temperature and pressure. In such cases, the Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law equations can be combined into a single equation, representing the Combined Gas Law, which states: The volume of a gas sample changes inversely with its pressure and directly with its Kelvin temperature.
D. Avogadro’s Hypothesis and Molar Volume
Avogadro’s Hypothesis states: At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules (Figure 9.10). This statement means that, if one liter of nitrogen at a particular temperature and pressure contains 1.0 X 1022 molecules, then one liter of any other gas at the same temperature and pressure also contains 1.0 X 1022 molecules.
E. The Ideal Gas Equation
The various statements relating to the pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas sample can be combined into one statement: The volume (V) occupied by a gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature (T), and the number of moles (n) of gas in the sample, and it is inversely proportional to its pressure (P). In mathematical form, this statement becomes:
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